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Plant Physiology Division

Mission

Conduct basic and strategic research to gain advanced knowledge on physiological and biochemical aspects of the coconut palm in collaboration with other disciplines for early identification of varietal performance, impacts of climate change and agronomic practices and thereby strengthening research recommendations in different disciplines.

Staff


Principle Research Officer/OIC Dr. A D Nainanayake, PhD
(University of Essex, UK)
Biometrician Dr. (Ms.) K P Waidyarathne, PhD
(Lincoln University, New Zealand)
Biometrician Mr. M D P Kumarathunga, MSc
(On overseas leave)
Research Officer Miss. T.H Chadrathilake
Technical (Research)
Experimental Officer Mr. R D N Premasiri
Experimental Officer Mr. W A S Wickramarachchi
(Diploma in Plantation Ext. Mgt., NIPM)
Technical Officer Mr. A P C Pradeep
(Diploma in Agriculture)
Non Research
Management Assistant Ms. H M S K Herath
Senior Lab & Field Attendant Mr. M M N Jayathissa
Senior Lab & Field Attendant Mr. J H U Jayamaha
Lab & Field Attendant Mr. R D A Lenard
Lab & Field Attendant Ms. A M J N Arthanayake
Office Attendant Mr. J A R Malintha

Research Highlights

  • Impacts of climate change on coconut, climate and plant process related field fluctuation , drought management package for mini triangle, root physiology and anatomy, sap flow studies and water use estimation.

Achievements

  • Growth hormones and their concentrations to induce root and shoot growth of amputated coconut seedlings were identified.
  • Sugar and vitamin profile of tender and mature coconut water was categorized.
  • A non-destructive method for determining leaf area of a frond and the whole canopy of an adult coconut palm was developed.
  • Nutrient analysis of LSD-affected palms revealed a Zn deficiency in LSD-affected (severe stage) palms.
  • Water relations studies on LSD-affected palms detected a high internal water deficit in LSD-affected palms even under soil moisture saturated conditions.
  • A screening method for drought tolerance in coconut was developed using water relations parameters.

  • Daily total canopy transpiration (L of water) during wet and dry periods was quantified.
  • Drought tolerant coconut varieties were screened using water relations and stable carbon isotope techniques.
  • Photosynthesis and carbon assimilation pattern at different levels of the canopy, diurnal variation in photosynthetic pattern, stomatal behaviour and dry matter production of coconut palm were established.
  • Effect of N, K and Cl on photosynthesis and water relations of coconut palm was identified.
  • Assimilate partitioning pattern into developing coconut bunches, leaf canopy and roots was determined using radio labeled 14CO2.
  • Changes in amino acid profile of coconut water with maturity stages were quantified.
  • Physiologically drought tolerant palms of ISG (Ambakelle Special) were identified using water relations parameters.
  • Effects of root and canopy modifications on yield of coconut were identified.
  • Changes in physiological performance of in vitro-grown coconut plants during acclimatization compared to nursery raised seedlings were quantified.
  • Most suitable coconut varieties for high toddy yields were identified.
  • Possibility of using a single coconut palm for nut and toddy production was established.
  • A protocol for the improvement of shelf-life of tender coconuts for the export market was developed at the laboratory scale.
  • A small tool was developed to punch-open tender coconuts.
  • Response of T×T and D×T varieties to drought, pattern of recovery from drought and the role of Abscisic acid and soil moisture depletion pattern on drought tolerance were identified.

  • Limitations to the root growth under soil moisture deficit, soil compaction and its variation in different land suitability classes were categorized.
  • Screened 40 coconut germplasm for drought tolerance using physiological parameters and San Ramon (Clovis), TSR and DB varieties were found to be resistant varieties to drought compared to other forms.
  • A non-destructive method for determining leaf area of unsplit leaves of coconut seedlings was developed.
  • Effective mulching materials and ground cover management systems on improvement of palm and soil water status were identified.
  • Role of Abscisic acid and diurnal variation in stomatal regulation of TT, TSR and DT varieties under soil moisture stress were identified.
  • Embryo-cultured plants screened for drought tolerance in vitro did not show any difference in the physiological performance under field condition.
  • Ethrel was identified as a chemical stimulant for yield increase in toddy.
  • Root and shoot growth of coconut seedlings under different land suitability classes were quantified.
  • Carbon removal in nut-producing and sap-producing coconut palms was quantified.
  • Changes in physiological performance and leaf nutrient status of Leaf Scorch Decline (LSD) and Coconut Rapid Decline (CRD affected coconut palms were identified.
  • Factors related to palm decline disorders (Leaf Scorch decline [LSD], Tapering Disorder [TD], Coconut Rapid Decline [CRD]) were identified through a scientific field survey.
  • All three types of decline-affected palms were found to be deficient in Cu and Zn.
  • TEM images of LSD, CRD and TD affected palms did not provide any evidence to prove the presence of sub-cellular pathogens or cellular abnormalities.
  • Of the leaf spraying, leaf axial application, root application and trunk application methods, only leaf spraying and leaf axial application methods were successful to apply micro nutrients.
  • Leaf spraying of nutrients did not show a consistent improvement in decline-affected palms.
  • Application of Poultry manure + Coconut shell charcoal improved the root growth of LSD- affected coconut palms.
  • Decline affected palms at initial stage can be improved by application of organic manure
  • Soil fertility decline due to continuous cultivation of coconut in S2 and S4 soils in three ACZ was quantified using soil physical, chemical and biological properties.
  • A protocol for the improvement of shelf-life of tender coconuts (for one month) for the export market was tested at commercial scale and recommended.
  • An improved protocol for increasing the shelf-life of tender coconuts up to 38 days was recommended.
  • Suitable coconut varieties for beverage purposes were identified.
  • TT (drought tolerant) showed a higher cell membrane stability compared to DT (drought sensitive) seedlings under water stressed condition.
  • Rain water harvesting tank was constructed at the BE to evaluate the impact on coconut yield improvement in surrounding palms.
  • Heat based sap flow techniques appeared promising to evaluate the water use of coconut palm under field conditions and indicated the possibility of using this method for screening coconut varieties for drought tolerance.
  • Carbon sequestration potential in coconut plantations was estimated.
  • Impact of WCLWD on the performance of coconut palm wad quantified.

On Going Research

  • Determining yield fluctuation in coconut in relation to climate factors (solar radiation intensity, air temperature and duration of dry spell), plant fruit load and pollen quality for developing a climate driven process-based yield prediction model
  • Determining the impact of climate change on productivity of coconut plantations
  • Estimating carbon sequestration potential in coconut plantations (mitigation of climate change)
  • Studying root growth, activity and function in relation to water and nutrient uptake
  • Quantifying water requirement of coconut palms by sap flow technique
  • Evaluating new crosses for drought tolerance and high yield
  • Determining the adaptation options of coconut for climate change (screening varieties, changing micro-climatic condition)
  • Evaluation of a model drought management system in the Middeniya research station representing majority of the soil and climatic conditions of the coconut mini triangle
  • Identification of optimum and critical light intensities for physiological performance of coconut seedlings and its variation with variety and moisture availability

Awards and Patents

  • Dr. C.S. Ranasinghe received precedential awards for two research papers published in international refereed journals appeared in Science Index in 2003 and 2005

  • Dr. W.S. Madurapperuma received precedential award for a research paper published in international refereed journals appeared in Science Index in 1998

  • Dr. C.S. Ranasinghe received the award for the best presentation in Plant Physiology and Post harvest Technology session at the 8th Annual Congress of the PGIA, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

  • Dr. C.S. Ranasinghe received the annual prize awarded by the Graduate Centre for Biology, University of Sussex, UK for presenting ‘ the best Post Graduate Student paper 1995

Recent Publications

  1. Ranasinghe, C. S, Silva, L R S, Premasiri R D N (2015) Major determinants of fruit set and yield fluctuation in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), Journal of National Science Foundation 43 (3), 253-264.
  2. Ranasinghe, C. S, Kumaratunga D, Jayaranjini S, De Costa W A J M (2015) Photosynthetic irradiance response, canopy photosynthesis and their variation with canopy strata in tall and dwarf x tall coconut cultivars (Cocos nucifera). Scientia Horticulturae 189, 175-183.
  3. Ranasinghe C S and Premasiri R D N (2015) Dry matter requirements for growth and respiration of coconut. COCOS 21, 21-31.
  4. Ranasinghe C S, Nainanayake N P A D and Kumarathunge D P (2015) Coconut Yield Forecast, volume 1 (Issues1 &2), January and June 2015, Coconut Research Institute.

  1. Ranasinghe C S (2014). Climate change effects on organic coconut. In: Organic Coconut Cultivation (Ed. Gunasena, H. P. M, Gunathilake H A J, Everard J M D T)).  Occasional Publication, Coconut Research Institute, Lunuwila, Sri Lanka. pp. 119-130.
  2. Amarasinghe, K.G.A.P.K., Ranasinghe, C. S., Abeysinghe, D. C and Perera, A. A. F. L. K (2014) Effects of Heat and Drought Stress on the Development of Reproductive Organs of Different Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Cultivars under Controlled Pollination Conditions in Sri Lanka. 2ND International Conference on advances in Plant Sciences (ICAPS 2014), November 18-22, Kuching, Malaysia. P 60.
  3. Amarasinghe, K.G.A.P.K., Ranasinghe, C. S., Abeysinghe, D. C and Perera, A. A. F. L. K (2014) Heat and Drought Stress Effect on pollen quality of major pollen donors in Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) used for artificial hybridization programme in Sri Lanka. Proceedings of the Wayamba University International Conference, Sri Lanka, 29-30 August 2014, p 245.
  4. Arachchi K.A.W.N.K., Ranasinghe C S and Costa W.A.J.M. De.  (2014) Possible influence of flower carbohydrates on the flower quality of coconut in response to variations in water availability prior to flower opening. Proceedings of the Peradeniya University International Research Sessions (Ipurse) -2014, University of Peradeniya, p 16.
  5. Kumarathunge, M. D. P. (2014). Extreme temperature events in three major coconut growing agroecological regions of Sri Lanka. In A. P. Keerthipala (ed).  Proceedings of the fifth symposium on plantation crop research-Towards a green plantation economy. Colombo, Sri Lanka 287-298.
  6. Muthugala, D. S. Kumarathunge, M. D. P. and Nalaka, G. D. A. (2014). Diurnal variation of Photosynthesis and gas exchange characteristics in selected Coconut (Cocos nucifera) varieties. Proceedings of the 6th Annual Research Symposium. Faculty of Agriculture, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka.
  7. Nadeeshani S M A O, Ranasinghe C S, Warnasooriya W M R S K (2014) Temperature and rainfall variability on carbohydrate content of anthers and pollen germination in coconut. 6th Annual Research Symposium 2014, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, p 83.
  8. Peiris N C, Ranasinghe C S, Abeysinghe, D C, Amarasinghe K.G.A.P.K (2014) Effect of heat and drought stress on quality of male and female flowers of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) cultivars used for hybrid seed production. Proceedings of 13th Agricultural Research Symposium, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, 7-8th August, 446-450.
  9. Ranasinghe, C S, Premasiri R D N and Pradeep A P C (2014). Vulnerability of coconut based agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka to climate change. Abstracts of the 3rd World Congress on Agroforestry: Trees for life: accelerating the impact of agroforestry (Eds. M. A. Wachira, B. Rabar, C. Magaju). 10-14 Feb, New Delhi, India.  p 287.
  10. Ranasinghe C S (2014) Climate Change Impacts on Coconut Production and Potential Adaptation Measures for the Asia and Pacific Region. Proceedings of the XLVI APCC COCOTECH conference, 7-11 July, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

  1. Ranasinghe C S (2013) Carbon sequestration and storage potential in coconut plantations. Journal of National Institute of Plantation Management 27 (1):20-23.
  2. Kadugammulla B P, Ranasinghe C S, Abeysinghe, D C (2013) Response of stomatal characteristics of different cultivars of Cocos nucifera L. to environmental factors in IL1a and DL3. Proceedings of 12th Agricultural Research Symposium, 30th-31st May 2013, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila.  170-174.
  3. Wickramasinghe A S M P M, Ranasinghe C S, Abeysinghe, D C (2013) Response of physiological parameters and leaf dry matter accumulation in different improved coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) cultivars to environmental conditions in DL3 and IL1a. Proceedings of 12th Agricultural Research Symposium, 30th-31st May 2013, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila.  274-278.
  4. Ranasinghe C S (2013) Impact of climate change on coconut and identification of adaptation measures with special emphasis on reproductive development. Gunasena, H.P.M., Gunathilake, H.A.J., Everard, J.M.D.T, Ranasinghe, C.S. and Nainanayake, A.D. (2013) (Eds). Proceedings of the International Conference on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptations for food and Environment Security, “Sustaining Agriculture under Changing Climate”,  Coconut Research Institute, Lunuwila, Sri Lanka; Ministry of Environment and Renewable Energy, Sri Lanka, World Agroforestry Centre, Regional Office, New Delhi, India. 101-113.
  5. Rangani H G U, Ranasinghe C S, Warnasooriya W M R S K (2013) Estimation of total dry matter requirement of developing fruits of improved coconut cultivars. Abstract in undergraduate research symposium proceedings, Faculty of Agriculture, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, 31st July, p 36.

  1. Ranasinghe C S and Thimothias K S H (2012). Estimation of carbon sequestration potential in coconut plantations under different growth conditions. Journal of National Science Foundation 40 (1):77-93.
  2. Ranasinghe, C S, Nainanayake, N P A D, Silva, L R S, Premasiri R D N (2012) Quantifying the effect of climatic factors and competition for assimilates on survival rate of young nuts and its impact on yield fluctuation in coconut In: Proceedings of the fourth Symposium on Plantation Crop Research – Technological Innovations for sustainable plantation economy (Eds. L S K Hettiarachchi, I S B Abeysinghe), 20-21 September, Colombo, 265-282.
  3. Ranasinghe C S (2012). Impact of climate change on reproductive Survivability of Coconut’ International consultation workshop on ‘Sustainable development: twenty years of Rio: Biodiversity,-development – Livelihoods’ at the M S Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), Chennai, India, 15-17  February.
  4. Ranasinghe C S (2012). Implications of Climate Change on Coconut Sector and Agroforestry Systems in Sri Lanka and livelihoods, 6th Annual Research Forum, Sri Lanka Agricultural economics Association, on 23rd November. CRI, Sri Lanka.
  5. C S Ranasinghe (2012) Impacts of climate change on coconut. In: Institute of Policy Studies (IPS) CLIMATEnet Blog.
  6. Nainanayake, A. D. and Ranasinghe, C. S. (2012). Physiological and Biochemical effects of palm and on production In: Weligama coconut leaf wilt disease. (Ed. Gunasena, H.P.M). Occasional Publications. Coconut Research Institute, Lunuwila, Sri Lanka. pp.
  7. Nainanayake, A. D. and Wijesekara, H. T. R. (2012). Spreading pattern and GIS mapping In: Weligama coconut leaf wilt disease. (Ed. Gunasena, H.P.M). Occasional Publications, Coconut Research Institute, Lunuwila, Sri Lanka. pp.

  1. Ranasinghe, C.S. (2011). Environmental Services of Coconut Based Agroforestry Systems, In: Increasing coconut land productivity through agroforestry interventions, Pushpakumar,a D.K.N.G., Gunasena, H.P.M., Gunathilake, J.G. and Singh, V.P. (Eds.), Proceedings of a symposium held at the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka on 15th March 2011, CRI, Sri Lanka, World Agroforestry Centre, South Asia Office, New Delhi, India, National Multipurpose tree species Research Network of Sri Lanka, Pp. 87-98.
  2. Ranasinghe, C.S. and Thimothias, K.S.H. (2011). Estimation of carbon sequestration potential in coconut plantations under different growth conditions, Journal of National Science Foundation (in press).
  3. Ranasinghe, C.S., Illankoon, I.M.I., Silva, L.R.S., Premasiri, R.D.N., Pradeep, A.P.C. (2011). Transitory carbohydrate reserves in vegetative organs of coconut under different growth conditions and its relation with reproductive and vegetative growth of the palm, COCOS (in press).
  4. Bandara, H.M.H.N.K.,  Ranasinghe, C.S., Gunathilake, H.A.W.S. (2011). Effect of light intensity on stomatal characteristics, chlorophyll content and dry matter partitioning pattern of coconut seedlings and their variation with variety and soil moisture content, Proceedings of 11th Agricultural Research Symposium, 20th -21st September 2011, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, Pp. 391-395.
  5. Peiris, P.U.S., Ranasinghe, C.S., Gunathilake, H.A.W.S. (2011). Response of physiological and morphological parameters of CRIC60 and CRIC65 coconut seedlings to different light levels and its variation with soil moisture availability, Proceedings of 11th Agricultural Research Symposium, 20th -21st September 2011, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, Pp. 396-400.
  6. Ranasinghe, C.S. (2011). Early nut setting: Crucial determinant of coconut yield, Coconut Technology Update, Issue 1, CRI.

  1. Ranasinghe, C.S. and Thimothias, K.S.H. (2010). Carbon Sequestration in coconut plantations, International Conference on coconut biodiversity for prosperity, CPCRI, Kasaragod, India, 25-28 October, Pp. 112.
  2. Ranasinghe, K.M.R., Ranasinghe, C.S. and Gunathilake, H.A.W.S. (2010). Effect of heat stress on pollen germination and fruit set of different varieties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), Proceedings of 10th Agricultural Research Symposium, 12-13 August 2010, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, Pp. 236-240.
  3. Ranasinghe, C.S., waidyarathna, K.P., Pradeep, I.A.P.C. and Meneripitiya, M.S.K. (2010). Approach to screen coconut varieties for high temperature tolerance by in-vitro pollen germination, COCOS,19: Pp. 1-12.
  4. Nainanayake, N.P.A.D., Werakkody, W.A.T.L., Wijesekara, H.T.R., Waidyarathne, K.P. and Subathma, W.G.R. (2010), Impact of Weligama Coconut Leaf Wilt Disease (WCLWD) on morphological, physiological and yield aspects of coconut palms, In: Proceedings of the Third symposium on Plantation Crop Research - Stakeholder Empowerment through Technology Advances, R.S. Darmakeerthi and A.M.W.K. Senevirathne (Eds.), September 30 and October 01,2010, Cinnaman Grand Hotel, Colombo, Sri lanka, Pp. 258-275.
  5. Madurapperuma, W.S., De Costa, W.A.J.M, Sangakkara, U.R. and Jayasekara, C. (2010). Cell Membrane Stability (CMS) as a tool to identify the magnitude of stress in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) seedlings, In: Proceedings of the Third symposium on Plantation Crop Research- Stakeholder Empowerment through Technology Advances, R.S. Darmakeerthi and A.M.W.K. Senevirathne (Eds.), September 30 and October 01,2010, Cinnaman Grand Hotel, Colombo, Sri lanka, Pp. 93-99.
  6. Madurapperuma, W.S., De Costa, W.A.J.M, Sangakkara, U.R. and Jayasekara, C. (2010). Effects of water stress on root hydraulic conductivity of seedlings of two coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) cultivars grown under plant house condition, In: Proceedings of the Third international symposium of Sabaragamuwa, Belihuloya,Sri lanka, 70140, Pp. 33.

  1. Madurapperuma, W. S., Bleby, T. M., Burgess, S.S.O. (2009). Evaluation of sap flow methods to determine water use by cultivated palms, Environmental and Experimental Botany, 66: Pp. 372-380.
  2. Madurapperuma, W.S., Costa, W.A.J.M. de, Sangakkara, U.R., Jayasekara, C. (2009). Estimation of water use of mature coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) cultivars (CRIC 60 and CRIC 65) grown in the low country intermediate zone using the compensation heat pulse method (CHPM), Journal of National Science Foundation, 37 (3): Pp. 175-186.
  3. Nainanyake, N.P.A.D. (2009). Screening coconut germplasm for drought tolerance - An approach for adaptation for climate change, In: Proceedings of the conference on Global Climate Change and its impacts on agriculture, forestry and water in the tropics, Costa, W.A.J.M. de, Nissanka, S.P., Mohotti, A.J., Weerakoon, W.M.W. (Eds.), 10-11 September, Kandy, Sri Lanka.
  4. Rnasinghe, C.S. (2009). Impact of climate change on productivity of coconut plantations - Overview of past and present research, , In: Proceedings of the conference on Global Climate Change and its impacts on agriculture, forestry and water in the tropics, Costa, W.A.J.M. de, Nissanka, S.P., Mohotti, A.J., Weerakoon, W.M.W. (Eds.), 10-11 September, Kandy, Sri Lanka.

  1. Bandupriya, H.D.D, Weerakoon, L.K., Ranasinghe, C.S. and Fernando, W.P.K.K. (2008). Changes in soluble sugars, sugars profile, starch and proline in developing coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) inflorescences, CORD, 24(1): Pp. 54-60.
  2. Nainanyake, N.P.A.D, Ranasinghe, C.S. and Tennakoon, A.T. (2008). Effect of drip irrigation on canopy and soil temperature, leaf gas exchange, flowering and nut setting of mature coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), Journal of National Science Foundation Sri Lanka, 36 (1): Pp. 47-54.
  3. Madurapperuma, W.S. and Kumaragamage, D. (2008). Evaluation of ammonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine penta acetic acid as a multinutrient extractant for acidic lowland rice soils, Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 39: Pp. 1773-1790.
  4. Ranasinghe, C.S., Madurapperuma. W.S., Nainanayake, N.P.A.D., Mendis, H.C. and Fernando, W.P.K. K. (2008). Tender coconuts for export market: evaluation of cultivars and improved protocol for extended shelf-life, In: Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Plantation Crop Research - Export competitiveness through quality improvements, N. P. A. D. Nainanayake and J. M. D. T. Everard (Eds.). Coconut Research Institute, Lunuwila, Sri Lanka, Pp. 35-44.
  5. Rasnayake, R.M.T.K., Ranasinghe, C.S. and Attanayake, D.P.S.T.G. (2008). Effect of temperature on viability, germination and carbohydrate content of pollen and fruit set in three different coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) cultivars, Proceedings of 8th Agricultural Research Symposium, 13-14 August 2008, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, Pp. 171-181.

  1. Ranasinghe, C.S. and Silva, L.R.S. (2007). Photosynthetic assimilation, carbohydrates in vegetative organs and carbon removal in nut-producing and sap-producing coconut palms, COCOS, 18: Pp. 45-57.
  2. Nainanayake, A.D. and Morison, J.I.L. (2007). A case study on physiology-based drought screening of coconut with selected accessions, COCOS, 18: Pp. 56-73.
  3. Nainanayake, A.D. (2007). Use of Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters to assess drought tolerance of coconut varieties, COCOS, 18: Pp. 10-35.
  4. Madurapperuma, W.S., Mendis, H., Ranasinghe, C.S., Premasiri, N. and Gunawardena, M. (2007). Comparative study of water movement in Leaf Scorch Decline affected and healthy coconut palms using Li as a non-radio-active tracer, COCOS, 18: Pp. 74-82.
  5. Fernando, M.T.N., Zubair, L., Peiris, T.S.G., Ranasinghe, C.S. and Ratnasiri, J. (2007). Economic value of climate variability impacts on coconut production in Sri Lanka, AIACC working paper No. 45, START Secretariat, USA.

  1. Lakmini, W.G.D., Nainanayake, N.P.A.D. and de Costa, W.A.J.M. (2006). Biochemical changes of four different coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) forms under moisture stress conditions, The Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2: Pp. 1-7.
  2. Ranasinghe, C.S., Peiris, T.S.G., Jayawardane, J.K.J.P., Perera, L., Fernando, M.T.N. and Wickramanada, I.R. (2006). Coconut Palm Decline Disorders - a survey on incidence and probable causes, Coconut Research Institute, Lunuwila, Sri Lanka.
  3. Ranasinghe, C.S., Fernando, L. C. P., Madurapperuma, W. S., Mendis, H. C. and Siriwardane, A. (2006). Identification of some possible causes of Leaf scorch decline (LSD), Tapering (TD) and Rapid Decline (CRD) disorders of coconut palm, Terminal Report, Council for Agricultural Research Policy (CARP), Sri Lanka (12 / 537 / 408).
  4. Peiris, T.S.G., Appuhamy, P.A.H.N., Nainanayake, N.P.A.D., Bandaranayake, C.K. and Fernando, M.T.N. (2006). Coconut Research, Development and Dissemination of Technologies - Growers' Perception. Diagnostic Survey Report, Coconut Research Institute, Lunuwila, 61150, Sri Lanka.

  1. Ranasinghe, C.S. (2005). Changes in the physiological performance of Leaf Scorch Decline (LSD) affected coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) palms, Experimental Agriculture, 41: Pp. 255-265.
  2. Jayasundara, J.M.N.S., Ranasinghe, C.S. and Fernandopulle, M.N.D. (2005). Use of tritiated water (3H2O) as a tracer to study the water movement in Leaf Scorch Decline (LSD) affected coconut palms, Proceedings of 5th Agricultural Research Symposium, part II, 27-28 September 2005, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, Pp. 101-104.
  3. Perera, L., Ranasinghe, C.S. and Randles, J.W. (2005). Assistance to identify the causal agent of 'Coconut Rapid Decline (CRD)' and initiate a practical disease control strategy, Terminal Report of FAO Project (TCP/SRL/0066 (A) and TCP/SRL/3002 (A), Technical Cooperation programme, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
  4. Nainanayake, A.D. and Morison, J.I.L. (2005). Understanding controls on genotype differences in water use effency in droughted coconut, John Boyer Symposium on Drought Tolerance, 12-14 July, Barcelona, Spain.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 01 August 2017 06:11  

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