Special Notices
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Planting and Management of Coconut Plantations

The Coconut Research Institute (CRI), currently recommends the following planting materials.

Tall X Tall (CRIC 60) improved variety
Tall X Tall cross
Flowers in 5-6 years
Suitable for all coconut growing areas
Production capacity:

12,000 nuts/ha/year

3.5 Mt copra/ha/year
Dwarf X Tall (CRIC 65) hybrid
Dwarf X Tall cross
Flowers in 3-4 years
Specially recommended for home gardens
Production capacity:
Exceed 20,000 nuts/ha/year
5 Mt of copra/ha/year
Tall X San ramon (SRISL 98) hybrid
Tall X San Ramon cross
Large nut size and high copra productivity
Suitable for all ecological growing areas
Moorock tall
Estate selected tall variety
Recommended for wet zone
Plus palm
Seedlings obtained from selected palms

  • Optimum density
    • 158 palms/ha
    • 64 - 65 palms/ac
  • Monoculture
    • Square system
      Spacing
      No. of seedlings
      Meters Feet Per ha Per ac
      8.0 x 8.0 26 x26 158 64
    • Triangular system
      Spacing
      No. of seedlings
      Meters Feet Per ha Per ac
      8.5 x 8.5 x 8.5 28 x 28 x 28 158 64
    • Rectangular system
      Spacing
      No. of seedlings
      Meters Feet Per ha Per ac
      7.3 x 8.5 24 x28 164 65
    • Inter-cropping system
      Spacing
      No. of seedlings
      Meters Feet Per ha Per ac
      7.3 x 9.2 24 x30 149 61
      7.3 x 11.1 24 x 32 140 57

Replanting is essential when;

Age of majority of palms is more than 60 years

Yield is less than 1000 nuts/ac/yr
Two types of Planting methods;

Replanting – Planting seedlings after complete removal of the old plantation
Underplanting – Planting seedlings in between existing rows of old plantation and gradual removal of them within a 5-6 year period after planting of seedlings
Remove the remaining old stand gradually in stages;


1st year after planting – 15%
2nd year after planting – 15%
3rd year after planting – 20%
4th year after planting – 20%
5th year after planting – remaining palms
Lining
To mark the planting holes at the correct distance and density, one of the following methods could be adopted

Square planting (8 m x 8 m )
Rectangular planting (7.3 m x 8.5 m )
Triangular planting (8 m x 8 m x 8 m)
Planting holes
Sandy and Loamy soils – 3 ft x 3 ft x 3 ft
Gravelly, Cabooky, Quartzitic soils – 4ft x 4 ft x 4ft
Planting Seedlings
Arrange two layers of husks or coir dust at the bottom of the planting hole.
Fill the hole with top soil, mixed with 1 Kg dolomite, organic manure 5 Kg and 1 kg Young Palm Mixture.
Young Palm Mixture
Wet and Intermediate zones Dry zone
Fertilizer Amount (g) Fertilizer Amount (g)
Urea 250 Urea 250
Eppawela Rock Phosphate 750 Eppawela Rock Phosphate 500
Muriate of Potash 250 Muriate of Potash 250
Planting hole should be filled with the above mixture up to 20 cm below the ground level.
Cut and remove the bottom of the poly bag with a knife.
Place the bottomless poly bagged seedling in the centre of the prepared hole.
Lift and remove the poly bag carefully without disturbing the soil.

Preventive treatment against termite attack.

  • Immerse the nut of the seedling for a few minutes with insecticide solution in the case bear rooted seedlings.
  • For poly bagged seedlings drench around with 1 liter of insecticide solution.
  • Insecticide solutions
    • 40 ml of Chloropyrofos in 10 liters of water.
    • 20 ml of Admire in 10 liters of water.

Mulch the base of seedlings with coconut husks, dried coconut fronds or any organic material available

Inorganic fertilizer:

  • Basal dressing per planting hole at the time of planting
    Wet and Intermediate zones Dry zone
    Fertilizer Amount (g) Fertilizer Amount (g)
    Urea 250 Urea 64
    Eppawela Rock Phosphate 750 Eppawela Rock Phosphate 500
    Muriate of Potash 250 Muriate of Potash 250
    Dolomite 1000 Dolomite 1000
  • Young Palms Mixture – application once in every six months
    Wet and Intermediate zones Dry zone
    Fertilizer (g)
    6 months 1 Year 1 ½ Year 2 Year 2 ½ Year 3 Year 3 ½ Year 4 Year up to bearing
    Urea 190 235 235 305 305 375 375 470
    Eppawela Rock Phosphate 420 530 530 690 690 850 850 1060
    Muriate of Potash 190 235 235 305 305 375 375 470
    Dolomite 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500
  • Improved cultivars (CRIC 60, CRIC 65 and CRISL 98) and high yielding palms.
    • 1 ½ times the above rates is recommended.

Inorganic Fertilizer (mixtures)

  • For basal dressings
    Young Palm Mixture for the wet and the intermediate zones (YPM-W)
    Urea 2.0 parts by weight
    Eppawela Rock Phosphate 4.5 parts by weight
    Muriate of Potash 2.0 parts by weight
    NPK composition of the mixture
    11 % N, 16%P2O5, 14%K2O (11-16-14)
    Young Palm Mixture for the dry zone (YPM D)
    Urea 2 parts by weight
    Eppawela Rock Phosphate 3 parts by weight
    Muriate of Potash 2 parts by weight
    NPK composition of the mixture
    13 % N, 12%P2O5, 17%K2O (13-12-17)D)

Inorganic fertilizer:

Wet and Intermediate zones Dry zone
Fertilizer Amount (g) Fertilizer Amount (g)
Urea 800 Urea 800
Eppawela Rock Phosphate 900 Eppawela Rock Phosphate -
Imported Rock Phpsphate - 600
Muriate of Potash 1600 Muriate of Potash 1600
Dolomite 1000 Dolomite 1000
  • Improved cultivars (CRIC 65 and CRISL 98) and high yielding palms.
    • 1 ½ times the above rates is recommended.

Inorganic fertilizer (mixtures):

Adult Palm Mixture for the Wet and the Intermediate zones-APM-W
Urea 8 parts by weight
Eppawela Rock Phosphate 9 parts by weight
Muriate of Potash 16 parts by weight
NPK composition of the mixture
11 % N, 8%P2O5, 29%K2O (11-8-29)
Adult Palm Mixture for the Dry zone-APM-D
Urea 8 parts by weight
Eppawela Rock Phosphate 6 parts by weight
Muriate of Potash 16 parts by weight
NPK composition of the mixture
12% N, 6%P2O5, 32%K2O (12-6-32)

Fertilizer recommendation is the same as that given in fertilizer for young palms and fertilizer for adult palms.

For young palms


Rate of application g/palm/6 month
Age of seedlings YPM-W
Wet/Intermediate zoned

YPM-D
(Dry zone)

Dolomite
6 months 800 650 500
12 months (1 Year) 1000 800 500
18 months (1 1/2Years) 1000 800 500
24 months (2 Years) 1300 1100 500
30 months (2 1/2 Years) 1300 1100 500
36 months (3 Years) 1600 1350 500
42 months (3 ½ Years) 1600 1350 500
48 months (4 Years) up to bearing 2000 1600 500

For adult palms

Rate of application Kg/palm/yr
APM-W (Wet & intermediate zones) APM-D (Dry zone) Dolomite
3.3 3.0 1.0


Radius of the manure circle (cm)
Age of seedlings YPM-WWet/Intermediate zoned
6 30
12 60
18
60
24
90
30
90
36
110
42
110
48 150
  • Broadcast fertilizer in the manure circle
  • Mixed with soil
  • Apply a mulch immediately

Methods of fertilizer application for bearing palms

Age of the seedlings (Months) Radius of the manure circle (cm)
Bearing palms 150
  • Broadcast fertilizer in the manure circle
  • Mixed with soil
  • Apply a mulch immediately

  • For young palms
    • Half yearly application of fertilizer is recommended
  • For bearing palms
    • Annual application of fertilizer is recommended

  • Rates of application of organic manures with inorganic supplementation for young coconut palms
Source Time after transplanting

6 months 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Years up to bearing (every year)
Cattle manure (moisture 20-30%) 5 Kg 12 Kg 16 Kg 16 Kg 25 Kg
ERP (Wet and Intermediate zones) 200 g 450 g 600 g 600 g 1000 g
IRP (Dry Zone) 125 g 300 g 400 g 400 g 625 g
Muriate of Potash 30 g 200 g 250 g 250 g 400 g
Dolomite 250 g 250 g 250 g 250 g 250 g
Goat manure (moisture 20-30%) 3 Kg 7 Kg 9 Kg

11 Kg

13 Kg

ERP (Wet and Intermediate zones) 200 g 450 g 600 g 750 g 1000
IRP (Dry Zone) 125 g 300 g 400 g 500 g 625 g
Muriate of Potash 50 g 120 g 150 g 190 g 225 g
Dolomite 250 g 250 g 250 g 250 g 250 g
Gliricidia manure (moisture 20-30% 5 Kg 12 Kg 16 Kg 20 Kg 25 Kg
ERP (Wet and Intermediate zones 275 g 650 g 825 g 1100 g 1350 g
IRP (Dry Zone) 175 g 425 g 550 g 700 g 875 g
Muriate of Potash 60 g 150 g 200 g 250 g 300 g
Dolomite 250 g 250 g 250 g 250 g 250 g

  • Rates of application of organic manures with inorganic supplementation for adult coconut palms
Organic manure Quantity (Kg) Eppawala rock phosphate for wet & intermediate zone/imported rock phosphate for dry zone (g) Muriate of potash (g) Dolomite (g)
Cattle manure (moisture 20-30%) 30 - 1250 -
Goat manure (moisture 20-30%) 25 - 80 -
Poultry manure (moisture 20-30%) 30 - 750 -
Gliricidia manure (moisture 20-30%) 30 525 (ERP)
(wet and Intermediate zones)
1000 500

350 (IRP)(Dry zone)

Nitrogen deficiency
Apply recommended fertilizer mixtures
Apply 200g of Urea per palm or 100g of Urea per young palm per year in addition to the application of recommended fertilizer mixtures.
Potassium deficiency
Apply recommended fertilizer mixtures
Apply 500g of Muriate of potash per adult palm per year in addition to the application of recommended fertilizer mixtures.
Magnesium deficiency
Keserite (24% MgO) should be applied as;
  • Young palms (1 year after planting up to bearing) – 500g per palm half yearly
  • Adult palms – 1kg per palm half yearly
Boron
Apply 10% solution of sodium borate as a foliar spray at every 4 days up to one month.

Mulching with coconut fronds
Fallen coconut fronds should be cut in to 2-3 pieces and used to cover manure circle.
2-3 layers are sufficient.
Mulching with coconut husks
Use fresh husks
Apply 200-250 husks in 2 m radius circle round the palm
Leave mulching 15 cm from the bole

Husk pits arranged in between palms
The size is 2.4 m x 1.2 m x 1 m (8’x 4’ x 3’)
Arrange alternatively between two palms along the coconut row
78 pits per one ha. (32 pits/ac.)
350 - 400 husks are required for one pit
Individual pits
The size is 1.2 m x 1.2 m x 1 m (4’x 4’ x 3’)
Arrange just outside the manure circle
200 husks for one pit
One third circle trenches
Husks are buried in 0.6 m (2ft.) deep and 0.6 – 1 m (2-3 ft) wide circular trenches
Cover an area of 1/3 around the palm just outside the manure circle
Linear trenches
1 m wide and 1 m deep
Running along the avenue just outside the manure circle

  • Creeping cover crops
For wet areas: (Wet and wet intermediate zones)
Pueraria phaseolodes (‘Puero’)
Calopogonium mucunoides (‘Calopo’)
Centrosema pubescens (‘Centro’)
For Dry areas: (Dry intermediate zone and dry zone)
Centrosema pubescens (‘Centro’)
Macroptilium atropurpureum (‘Siratro’)
Pueraria phaseoloides (for dry intermediate zone only)
Calopogonium mucunoides (for dry intermediate zone only)
Bush cover crops
Gliricidia sepium / Gliricidia maculate (‘Weta-mara’)

Ground cover by coconut and other crops/grasses
Mulching the manure circle.
Control cover grazing by cattle and other animals.
Planting cover crops
Contour drains
Contour bunds
Drainage drains
Terracing
Application of SALT (Sloping Agricultural Land Technology)
Other practices
Avoid ploughing and harrowing in sloping lands.
Rain water collection in tanks.
Application of organic manure for coconut palms.
Perennial intercropping.

Last Updated on Tuesday, 22 December 2015 08:25  

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